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Si tratta di un utilizzo del software per scopri promozionali. L’idea che li fonda è di attirare l’attenzione del consumatore fornendo contenuti che spesso richiedono interazione dell’utente e un seguito (follow-up) che comporti un’azione di chi li sta osservando. Proprio per questa caratteristica vengono spesso associati alle “Follow-Up Technolgies”.
Acronym for ”Ami Money Laundering”, is the preventive action and the fight against the laundering of assets, money or other utilities in general. At the national level, the anti-money laundering legislative framework is now represented by Legislative Decree No. 231 of 21 November 2007, as subsequently amended and supplemented, and the relevant implementing provisions issued by the Minister of Economy and Finance (MEF), the Financial Intelligence Unit for Italy (FIU) and the sector supervisory authorities.
Sono programmi nati per affrontare i malware. Bloccano la loro esecuzione prima che questa abbia avuto effetto o nei migliori casi ne rilevano la presenza prima ancora che il codice malevolo entri in funzione.
In informatica, un metodo alternativo (solitamente riservato e non necessariamente lecito), utilizzato per superare l’autenticazione di un sistema ed accedere direttamente ai dati in esso contenuti.
Decentralised ledger technologies are based on sequential containers of data (so-called blocks) that have a fixed size, which differs from one blockchain to another, a unit identifier and a link with the previous and subsequent blocks determined by algorithmic techniques. Blocks are generally added by so-called miners following Proof of Work or Proof of Stake in blockchains that have introduced the latter.
A technology based on Distributed Ledger Technology (DLT) a chain of blocks that record and manage accounting transactions accessible only to the users of each node, to ensure traceability. From a technical point of view, the blockchain is a sequential data structure: a new block of data can only be queued; to modify a block of data in the middle of the existing chain, all subsequent blocks must be modified, making this operation computationally inefficient. Functionally, the blockchain is a digital ledger, shared peer-to-peer between the nodes of a network. Each node has a copy of this public ledger, on which all transactions are recorded. “Distributed ledger technologies” are defined as ‘information technologies and protocols that use a shared, distributed, replicable, simultaneously accessible, architecturally decentralised ledger on a cryptographic basis, such as to enable the recording, validation, updating and storage of both unencrypted and further cryptographically protected data that is verifiable by each participant, not alterable and not modifiable’: this is how blockchain is defined.
One of the techniques to keep the value of the token or coin high, which literally consists of removing part of it from circulation. This is done by displacing the tokens or coins that want to be removed to an address where they are segregated and can never be taken out again.
An acronym for “Crypto Asset Service Provider”, is any person whose occupation or activity consists of providing one or more crypto asset services to third parties on a professional basis. Services for crypto-activities: custody and administration of crypto-assets for the account of third parties; operation of a crypto-asset trading platform; exchange of crypto-assets with a legal tender; exchange of crypto-assets with other crypto-assets; execution of crypto-asset orders for the account of third parties; placement of crypto-assets; receipt and transmission of crypto-asset orders for the account of third parties; provision of crypto-asset advice. In the AML regulation, this is the homologous definition of ”service providers of virtual currency”, defined as ”any natural or legal person who provides third parties, on a professional basis, including online, with services functional to the use, exchange the storage of ‘virtual’ currencies and their conversion from or into legal tender or digital representations of value, including those convertible into other virtual currencies as well as the services of issuing, offering, transferring and clearing and any other service functional to the acquisition, trading or intermediation in the exchange of such currencies.”
Legislative Decree No 206 of 6 September 2005 on the reorganisation of consumer protection legislation, which consists of 146 articles.
A type of activity recorded in digital form and made possible by the use of cryptography facilitated by DLT/blockchain.
An acronym for “Decentralised Application”, this is a type of application whose operation does not depend on central control points or servers, but functions on the basis of a decentralised network: in essence, it is an interface available to the user that allows him to activate a smart contract and to see on the same interface the results of the different processing of the smart contract.
Is a decentralised platform for the creation and peer-to-peer publication of smart contracts. Ethereum’s blockchain technology is similar to that of bitcoin. However, bitcoins use a specific application of blockchain technology: essentially, it is a system that enables online payments with bitcoins. Ethereum’s blockchain keeps track of the possession of the digital currency, but also focuses on running the program of a wide range of decentralised applications.
The providers of exchange services between virtual currencies and legal tender (fiat money) or vice versa.
The currency accepted as a means of payment because it is declared legal tender (also called fiat money) by the state that issues it.
A fork is an update of a protocol in a different version from the original. There are two types of fork: the hard fork and the soft fork. The former is a software update that is not backward compatible. Typically, it occurs when nodes add new rules that conflict with the rules of old nodes. The new nodes can only communicate with others that use the new version. As a result, the blockchain splits, creating two separate networks: one with the old rules and one with the new ones. In contrast, a soft fork implies a change to protocols compatible with previous versions of the blockchain. It usually consists of a change that restricts the protocol rules, making blocks that were previously valid invalid, and a change whereby old versions of the software will recognise blocks and transactions generated by new versions of the software (backward compatibility).
Money has three functions: unit of account, store of value and means of payment. Unit of account: money is used to homogeneously compare the value of very different products and services, thus facilitating economic decisions and contractual agreements. Value reserve: money makes it possible to shift over time the portion of income that is not immediately used to consume goods and services. In other words, it makes it possible to conserve (save) a share of current income to spend it in the future. Means of payment: coin can be exchanged instantaneously for goods and services: the buyer delivers money to the seller and in this way frees himself from any obligation to the latter who, by accepting it, recognises its value.
The fee paid by the user at the time of a transaction on the Ethereum blockchain. The price is set in gwei (the name of Ethereum’s native currency, where 1 gwei is equal to 0.000000001 ETH. Paying ‘gas’ is thus synonymous with powering a transaction: in doing so, one generates the computational energy required to carry out that particular transaction.
The mathematical function capable of producing a string (sequence of characters) of fixed length from any file or text. Every slightest change in the file or text will produce a different output string. The fundamental characteristic of these functions is their difficult invertibility: thus, given a hash value, it is very difficult to trace back to the message that generated it; it is also very difficult to produce a message that provides a predetermined string.
An acronym for ‘Initial Coin Offering’, refers to the first public offering, by an institution, company or organisation, of its tokens in an attempt to gain access to funding. It is often encountered in the early stages of a project as a means to put it on a stable financial footing.
It is a general term describing a malicious program/code that puts a system at risk. In computer security, it denotes any computer program used to disrupt the operations performed by a computer user.
An intermediary website for the buying and selling of a good or service; the main characteristic of marketplaces is to bring together under one brand name (the name of the platform) the goods of different producers, sellers, companies, vendors and sellers.
The process of validating transactions with a computer in a network. The process involves solving complex algorithms to prove the correctness of a transaction and then adding a new block to the chain that forms the blockchain. In return, a sum in cryptocurrency is paid as a reward.
“Minting is the term used to define the process of token creation, which is done either by directly writing the corresponding smart contract or by using one of the platforms dedicated to the minting of such tokens.
Distributed technologies, including blockchain, can be represented as a network and the points of contact are represented by computers (from the large server to the small mobile phone), referred to as nodes.
A type of protocol for securing a cryptocurrency network and for the consumption of a distributed consensus. It is based on the principle that each user is required to prove possession of a certain amount of cryptocurrency. It differs from the Proof of Work system, which is based on hash algorithms that validate electronic transactions.
An algorithm that is used by different cryptocurrencies to reach a decentralised agreement between different nodes in the process of adding a specific block to the blockchain. Hashcash (SHA-256) is the Proof of Work function used by bitcoin. The cryptocurrency forces miners to solve extremely complex and computationally difficult mathematical problems in order to add blocks to the blockchain. This function produces a very specific type of data that is used to verify that a considerable amount of work has been done, hence the term Proof of Work. This process takes a lot of time and energy, but it is through it that miners are rewarded.
Is a programme that operates on Distributed Ledger Technology (DLT) and whose execution automatically binds two or more parties on the basis of effects pre-defined by them. A “smart contract” is defined as a computer programme that operates on distributed ledger-based technologies and whose execution automatically binds two or more parties on the basis of effects pre-defined by them. Smart contracts meet the requirement of written form after computer identification of the parties involved, through a process with the requirements set by the Agency for Digital Italy with guidelines to be adopted within ninety days from the date of entry into force of the law converting this decree.
“Stable currency” is a particular type of cryptocurrency whose characteristic feature is stability, which derives from the fact that it is pegged to another medium of exchange that has a more attainable value, such as another legal tender or a commodity.
In computer security, denotes a type of malware. The term is derived from the ancient Greek story of the deceptive Trojan Horse that led to the fall of the city of Troy. The Trojan, like the horse in the ancient Greek story, is hidden inside another seemingly useful and harmless program: the user, by running or installing the latter program, also unknowingly activates the code of the hidden Trojan.
A digital representation of value, not issued by a central bank or public authority, not necessarily linked to a legal tender, used as a medium of exchange for the purchase of goods and services and transferred, stored and traded electronically.
Acronym for “Virtual Asset Service Provider”, is the provider of cryptocurrency-related services. Unlike CASP it deals with virtual currencies.